Web3 & Crypto tokens

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16:10 Minutes The average reading duration of this insightful report.


Primers: Primers are quick short form business reports that educate leaders on key emerging technologies.

Web3 & Crypto tokens

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Discover the revolutionary world of Web3 in this compelling paper, where we delve into its fundamental building blocks and crypto tokens that underpin this decentralized paradigm shift. Explore the exciting enterprise use-cases harnessing the true potential of Web3 technology, revolutionizing industries and unlocking unprecedented opportunities.

Explore a sneak peek of the full content

What’s inside

  1. Web3 and it’s building blocks
  2. The Web3 adoption
  3. The role of the enterprise in Web3
    a) Business models around Web3 and major players
  4. Regulatory and technology risks

Web3 and it’s building blocks

Foundation Blocks Of Web

Web3 represents a decentralized web powered by blockchain, enabling decentralized participatory communities. It promotes user control over data, governance, and transactions. The transition from Web2 to Web3 encompasses decentralization of user data and content, finance and currency systems, and immersive user experiences. Web3 leverages crypto tokens, digital assets issued on blockchains, and utilizes smart contracts for decentralized finance. These tokens are essential for Web3 and its growth. Web3’s potential lies in building digital communities, disrupting economic representation, and co-creating value within token networks. Blockchain underpins Web3, ensuring secure transactions and smart contracts. Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) play a role in ownership and provenance of digital assets.

The Web3 adoption

The growth of crypto markets until 2021 was remarkable, but the web3 community remains relatively small. By November 2021, about 7 million people were using token wallets monthly. Crypto is volatile, with fundamental flaws and regulatory challenges. The complexity of web3 poses risks in regulation, technology, and security. EU, USA, and China may not fully support crypto. However, digital tokens can still find a counterculture of users valuing crypto custody and communities. Web3’s potential to benefit the public is uncertain. Adoption paths vary, and tokens could disrupt traditional systems, but regulatory hurdles and fraud might impede progress. VC investments in web3 exceeded $18 billion in H1 2022, indicating significant interest and potential. Download Complete Research

Crypto tokens are integral to decentralized finance (DeFi), enabling peer-to-peer transactions and powering various financial activities without intermediaries. They are disruptive technologies that are still nascent and complex.

The role of the enterprise in Web3

Tokens are most impactful when they unite micro-communities to create long-term value. However, many token projects remain immature and fail to generate value due to the absence of robust economies. Centralized enterprises and their brands could play a significant role in web3 by building token ecosystems around their communities, blurring the line between utility and investment. Brands can use NFTs for reinvented customer loyalty programs and create DAOs for crowdsourcing productivity. Successful token development depends on an engaged community, and brands can incentivize fans to participate actively. Notable brands like Nike and Starbucks are already exploring web3 and NFTs. Mainstream and decentralized brands are recognizing the potential of engaging with digital-native fan communities in the web3 space. Download Complete Research

Regulatory and technology risks

Web3’s tokens hold enormous potential but also significant risks. Users are responsible for token custody and must secure them cryptographically. Cybercrimes can lead to substantial financial losses. Token fraud and money laundering are concerns due to anonymity. Regulatory challenges are growing, with potential impacts on tax codes and transactions.

Author@lab45: Ankit Pandey

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Generative AI startups: Landscape & trends

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12:49 Minutes The average duration of a captivating reports.


Primers: Primers are quick short form business reports that educate leaders on key emerging technologies.

Generative AI startups: Landscape & trends

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Generative AI is forming a new economic ecosystem, reshaping the behaviour of key players in the IT industry, generating opportunities for super-scalers, and unveiling numerous niches for startups. The outlines of this new IT landscape are emerging, prompting a closer examination.

What's inside

  1. Introduction: The rise & impact of generative AI
  2. The technology & business stack of GenAI
  3. Business niches for GenAI startups
  4. Future trends in GenAI
  5. Appendix 1: Reality & expectations of GenAI
  6. Appendix 2: Startups across the GenAI tech stack

Introduction: The rise & impact of generative AI

Generative AI has caused significant disruption, expanding its offerings and services well beyond traditional AI domains. This has led to an explosion of potential use cases for customers who aren't AI experts. Unlike before, customers no longer require a team of AI experts, curated data, or precisely measurable outcomes to adopt AI tool and gain immediate benefits. The interaction with GenAI is so seamless and intuitive that the onboarding for new customers is frictionless, eliminating barriers to adoption and facilitating rapid technology spread. The high variability in potential inputs and priming of generative models allows for a diverse range of applications impacting nearly every imaginable aspect of people activities. This is a foundation of a new era of Artificial Intelligence.

In this primer we leveraged our knowledge of 50+ GenAI-related and VC-backed startups to reconstruct the technological stack of the forming GenAI space.

The technology & business stack of GenAI

Large tech companies are leveraging their existing technological and capital advantages to create the framework for the GenAI market landscape, which we are going to explore in this section.

While offering of the LLMs on the current scale and heavy focus on unstructured data are somewhat new, the other elements of the tech stack closely mirror those needed for any large computational modeling. Established companies in the field of traditional AI are at an advantage, as they can expand and repurpose preexisting software, infrastructure, and services. Download Complete Research

Business niches for GenAI startups

While large players are occupying a sizable portion of the GenAI tech stack, there remains more than enough room for GenAI startups to flourish. The landscape of AI and ML is continuously evolving, with new startups, technologies, and methodologies emerging regularly.

Bottom-right (AIOps): Here, startups may offer tools for easier adoption of LLMs, facilitating the initial process of customizing and implementing these models.

Ascending (Integration): Moving upwards represents the process of integrating LLMs into various applications and business operations. Startups could offer integration services, templates, or frameworks to streamline this, or build an entire end to end app for a selected market niche.

Moving left (Service platforms): As we move leftwards, the focus shifts from core LLM functionality to auxiliary services. This could range from platforms offering specialized training data, to marketplaces for LLM apps, to optimization tools. These firms may automate the need for certain experts.

This taxonomy can serve as a foundational overview for anyone looking to understand the current state of the LLM ecosystem. It’s also worth noting that the landscape of AI and ML is continuously evolving, with new startups, technologies, and methodologies emerging regularly. Let’s inspect each block in greater detail:

Future trends in GenAI

The future of the GenAI landscape is going to be defined by several processes:

  1. Consolidation of major players
  2. Rise in open-source adoption
  3. Surge in service platforms
  4. Expansion of skill marketplaces
  5. Segment-specific applications
  6. Regulatory oversight and standardization

Appendix 1: Reality & expectations of GenAI

While enhancing the users with great capabilities, the LLM-based service is neither a freebie, nor a cornucopia. Each implementation of LLMs carries its own advantages and downsides. In this section of the Appendix, we discuss what can and cannot be realistically expected from a GenAI model in each of the most popular use cases.

We start with primary properties of a pre-trained LLM model, underlying its strong sides and functionalities as well as build-in flaws. And we move to the current ways of augment LLM model to work around the flaws. Download Complete Research

Appendix 2: Startups across the GenAI tech stack

The table of 78 startups we have based our analysis on is presented in this section.
The states of startups are set to the August of 2023.

Author@lab45: Rinat Sergeev

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ChatGPT and enterprise leaders

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14:07 Minutes The average duration of a captivating reports.


Primers: Primers are quick short form business reports that educate leaders on key emerging technologies.

ChatGPT and enterprise leaders

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Discover the transformative impact of ChatGPT in the business world. Explore its potential in natural language processing, AI's role in enterprise strategy, and how leaders can leverage this technology for growth and innovation.

What's inside:

  1. Evaluating ChatGPT's value for enterprises short and medium-term.
  2. Understanding NLP in a business context with real-world examples.
  3. Recognizing limitations and strategic planning.

The value for you as an enterprise leader

Short-term deployment strategies
In the immediate future, the emphasis is on implementing ChatGPT Plus and its API in selective functions within enterprises. This phase aims to measure the return on investment by integrating ChatGPT in various divisions, particularly in areas like code development and marketing. A key benefit of this approach is the potential enhancement of employee productivity through accelerated learning and execution, leveraging ChatGPT’s advanced capabilities.

Value Of Enterprise Leaders

Medium-term licensing and training
For a 6-month to 1-year outlook, the focus shifts to licensing GPT3.5 and tailoring it with company-specific intelligence. This move aims to bypass the limitations of the general-access SaaS model and utilize ChatGPT’s full potential. By customizing the AI with domain-specific data, enterprises can create distinctive products or services, thereby gaining a competitive edge.

Short Term Vs Mid Term

Considerations and limitations
Key considerations include the confidentiality of data, the competency and adaptability of employees, and the initial costs and resources required for deployment. The hardware prerequisites, licensing costs, and additional expenses for model training are also crucial factors. The strategy involves a careful balance of immediate benefits against long-term investments, ensuring that the integration of ChatGPT aligns with the enterprise’s overall objectives and capabilities. Download Complete Research

The technology behind ChatGPT (Natural language processing)

Evolution of machine learning and deep learning
The foundation of ChatGPT's technology lies in the evolution of machine learning, a key subset of artificial intelligence where computers are trained to emulate human performance. Initially, machine learning powered simple applications like search and recommendation engines. Over time, it evolved into deep learning, which uses neural networks for more complex tasks. These neural networks, comprising units called artificial neurons, mimic the human brain's functioning, processing data through interconnected nodes. This advancement is evident in modern applications ranging from chatbots to intelligent assistants.

Breakthrough with transformer models
A significant leap occurred in 2017 with Google's introduction of transformer models. These models, central to ChatGPT's technology, excel in processing entire sentences and generating text. They operate using an encoder-decoder mechanism and focus on the 'attention' principle, determining the relevance of each word in a context. OpenAI's investment in these models led to the development of GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) series, culminating in ChatGPT.

Factors Contributing to ChatGPT's Success

  1. Massive dataset: Trained on a vast array of internet sources, ChatGPT's dataset includes a staggering 499 billion tokens, offering a broad base for learning and response generation.
  2. Large-scale model: With 175 billion parameters, ChatGPT dwarfs its nearest competitor and demonstrates more nuanced understanding and response capabilities.
  3. Computational power: The use of Azure Supercomputers enables ChatGPT to process and learn from its extensive dataset efficiently.
  4. Refined algorithms: OpenAI's continual refinement of the transformer model has significantly enhanced deep learning capabilities.
  5. Human feedback reinforced learning (HFRL): This training methodology incorporates human input to fine-tune the AI's responses, making them more accurate and contextually appropriate.

This section highlights the technological advancements behind ChatGPT, illustrating its journey from basic machine learning applications to sophisticated natural language processing capabilities. Download Complete Research

The limitations

Evolution Of Learning Models

Accuracy and misinformation
ChatGPT's training on extensive internet data poses risks of inaccuracy and misinformation. It often lacks the latest updates and struggles to differentiate between fact and fiction, leading to potential misinformation, especially for non-experts.

Contextual understanding and bias
Another limitation is its inability to interpret emotions or hidden intentions, potentially resulting in inappropriate responses. Furthermore, biases in its training data can skew ChatGPT's outputs, reflecting these inherent biases in its responses.

Operational costs and legal implications
Maintaining ChatGPT involves significant costs due to its complex system requiring regular updates. Additionally, legal challenges, such as copyright issues, can arise from its text generation capabilities.

Environmental impact
The energy consumption for running ChatGPT is substantial, contributing to environmental concerns. The costs, both financial and environmental, of operating data centers and processing large datasets are significant, highlighting a need for more sustainable practices.
This section highlights ChatGPT's main challenges: accuracy and bias issues, high operational costs, legal risks, and environmental impact. It emphasizes the need for addressing these concerns for its effective and responsible use. Download Complete Research

Lead Authors@lab45: Arvind Ravishunkar, Dinesh Chahlia, Nitin Narkhede, Noha El-Zehiry
Contributing Authors@lab45: Aishwarya Gupta, Anindito De

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